Disclaimer: This DD is to help start forming a market view as per RBI announcements. Also a gentle reminder that fundamentals play out over a longer time frame than intraday. The authors take no responsiblity for your yolos.
With contributions by Asli Bakchodi, Bran OP & dragononweed
What is the RBI?
RBI is the central bank of India. They are one of the key players who affect India’s economic trajectory. They control currency supply, banking rules and more. This means that it is not a bank in which retailers or corporates can open an account with. Instead they are a bank for bankers and the Government of India.
Their functions can be broadly classified into 6.
· Monetary authority
· Financial supervisor for financial system
· Issuer of currency
· Manages Foreign exchange
· Bankers bank
· Banker to the government
This DD will take a look at each of these functions. It will be followed by a list of rates the RBI sets, and how changes in them can affect the market. 1. Monetary Authority
One of RBI’s functions is to achieve the goal of “Price Stability” in the economy. This essentially means achieving an inflation rate that is within a desired limit.
A monetary policy committee (MPC) decides on the desired inflation rate and its limits through majority vote of its 6 members, in consultation with the GoI.
The current inflation target for RBI is as follows
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI): 4%
Upper Limit: 6%
Lower Limit: 2%
An increase in CPI means less purchasing power. Generally speaking, if inflation is too high, the public starts cutting down on spending, leading to a negative impact on the markets. And vice versa. Lower inflation leads to more purchasing power, more spending, more investments leading to a positive impact on the market. 2. Financial Supervisor For Financial System
A financial system consists of financial markets (Capital market, money market, forex market etc.), financial institutions (banks, stock exchanges, NBFC etc) & financial assets (currencies, bills, bonds etc)
RBI supervises this entire system and lays down the rules and regulations for it. It can also use further ‘Selective Credit Controls’ to regulate banks. 3. Issues of currency
The RBI is responsible for the printing of currency notes. RBI is free to print as much as it wants as long as the minimum reserve of Rs 200 Cr (Gold 112 Cr) is maintained. The RBI has total assets or a balance size sheet of Rs. 51 trillion (April 2020). (1 Trillion = 1 Lakh crore)
India’s current reserves mean our increase in currency circulation is well managed. 4. Manages Foreign Exchange
RBI regulates all of India’s foreign exchange transactions. It is the custodian of all of foreign currencies in India. It allows for the foreign exchange value of the rupee to be controlled. RBI also buy and sell rupees in the foreign exchange market at its discretion.
In case of any currency movement, a country’s central bank can directly intervene to either push the currency up, as India has been doing, or to keep it artificially low, as the Chinese central bank does. To push up a currency, a central bank can sell dollars, which is the global reserve currency, or the currency against which all others are measured. To push down a currency, a central bank can buy dollars.
The RBI deciding this depends on the import/export and financial health of the country. Generally a weaker rupee means imports are more expensive, but are favourable for exports. And a stronger rupee means imports are cheaper but are unfavourable for exports.
A weaker rupee can make foreign investment more lucrative driving up FII. A stronger rupee can have an adverse effect of FII investing in markets. 5. Banker’s Bank
Every bank has to maintain a certain amount of reserve with the RBI. A certain percentage of a bank’s liabilities (anywhere between 3-15% as decided by RBI) has to be maintained in this account. This is called the Cash Reserve Ratio. This is determined by the MPC during the monetary policy review (which happens every six weeks at present).
It lends money from this reserve to other banks if they are short on cash, but generally, it is seen as a last resort move. Banks are encouraged to meet their shortfalls of cash from other resources. 6. Banker to the government
RBI is the entity that carries out ALL monetary transactions on behalf of the Government. It holds custody of the cash balance of the Government, gives temporary loans to both central and state governments and manages the debt operations of the central Government, through instruments of debt and the interest rates associated with them - like bonds. The different rates set & managed by RBI
- Repo rate
The rate at which RBI is willing to lend to commercial banks is called as Repo Rate.
Banks sometimes need money for emergency or to maintain the SLR and CRR (explained below). They borrow this from RBI but have to pay some interest on it. The interest that is to be paid on the amount to the RBI is called as Repo Rate.
It does not function like a normal loan but acts like a forward contract. Banks have to provide collateral like government bonds, T-bills etc. Repo means Repurchase Option is the true meaning of Repo an agreement where the bank promises to repurchase these government securities after the repo period is over.
As a tool to control inflation, RBI increases the Repo Rate making it more expensive for banks to borrow from the RBI with a view to restrict availability of money. Exact opposite stance shall be taken in case of deflationary environment.
The change of repo rate is aimed to affect the flow of money in the economy. An increase in repo rate decreases the flow of money in the economy, while the decrease in repo rate increases the flow of money in the economy. RBI by changing these rates shows its stance to the economy at large whether they prioritize growth or inflation.
- Reverse Repo Rate
The rate at which the RBI is willing to borrow from the Banks is called as Reverse Repo Rate. If the RBI increases the reverse repo rate, it means that the RBI is willing to offer lucrative interest rate to banks to park their money with the RBI. Banks in this case agree to resell government securities after reverse repo period.
Generally, an increase in reverse repo rate that banks will have a higher incentive to park their money with RBI. It decreases liquidity, affecting the market in a negative manner. Decrease in reverse repo rate increases liquidity affecting the market in a positive manner. Both the repo rate and reverse repo rate fall under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility tools for RBI.
- Cash reserve ratio (CRR)
Banks in India are required to deposit a specific percentage of their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) in the form of CASH with the RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. These reserves will not be in circulation at any point in time.
For example, if a bank had a NDTL (like current Account, Savings Account and Fixed Deposits) of 100Cr and the CRR is at 3%, it would have to keep 3Cr as Cash reserve ratio to the RBI. This amount earns no interest.
Currently it is at 3%. A lower cash ratio means banks can deposit just a lower amount and use the remaining money leading to higher liquidity. This translates to more money to invest which is seen as positive for the market. Inversely, a higher cash ratio equates to lower liquidity which translates to a negative market sentiment.
Thus, the RBI uses the CRR to control excess money flow and regulate liquidity in the economy.
- Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR)
Banks in India have to keep a certain percentage of their net demand and time liabilities WITH THEMSELVES. And this can be in the form of liquid assets like gold and government securities, not just cash. A lot of banks keep them in government bonds as they give a decent interest.
The current SLR ratio of 18.25%, which means that for every Rs.100 deposited in a bank, it has to invest Rs.18.50 in any of the asset classes approved by RBI.
A low SLR means higher levels of loans to the private sector. This boosts investment and acts as a positive sentiment for the market. Conversely a high SLR means tighter levels of credit and can cause a negative effect on the market.
Essentially, the RBI uses the SLR to control ease of credit in the economy. It also ensures that the banks maintain a certain level of funds to meet depositor’s demands instead of over liquidation.
- Bank Rate
Bank rate is a rate at which the Reserve Bank of India provides the loan to commercial banks without keeping any security. There is no agreement on repurchase that will be drawn up or agreed upon with no collateral as well. This is different from repo rate as loans taken with repo rate are taken on the basis of securities. Bank rate hence is higher than the repo rate.
Currently the bank rate is 4.25%. Since bank rate is essentially a loan interest rate like repo rate, it affects the market in similar ways.
- Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)
This is the minimum rate below which the banks are not allowed to lend. Raising this rate, makes loans more expensive, drying up liquidity, affecting the market in a negative way. Similarly, lower MCLR rates will bring in high liquidity, affecting the market in a positive way.
MCLR is a varying lending rate instead of a single rate according to the kind of loans. Currently, the MCLR rate is between 6.65% - 7.15%
- Marginal Standing facility
Marginal Standing Facility is the interest rate at which a depository institution (generally banks) lends or borrows funds with another depository institution in the overnight market. Overnight market is the part of financial market which offers the shortest term loans. These loans have to be repaid the next day.
MSF can be used by a bank after it exhausts its eligible security holdings for borrowing under other options like the Liquidity adjustment facilities.
The MSF would be a penal rate for banks and the banks can borrow funds by pledging government securities within the limits of the statutory liquidity ratio.
The current rate stands at 4.25%. The effect it has on the market is synonymous with the other lending rates such as repo rate & bank rate.
- Loan to value ratio
The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is an assessment of lending risk that financial institutions and other lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, loan assessments with high LTV ratios are considered higher risk loans.
Basically, if a companies preferred form of collateral rises in value and leads the market (growing faster than the market), then the company will see the loans that it signed with higher LTV suddenly reduce (but the interest rate remains the same).
Let’s consider an example of gold as a collateral. Consider a loan was approved with gold as collateral. The market price for gold is Rs 2000/g, and for each g, a loan of Rs 1500 was given. (The numbers are simplified for understanding). This would put LTV of the loan at 1500/2000 = 0.75. Since it is a substantial LTV, say the company priced the loan at 20% interest rate.
Now the next year, the price of gold rose to Rs 3000/kg. This would mean that the LTV of the current loan has changed to 0.5 but the company is not obligated to change the interest rate. This means that even if the company sees a lot of defaults, it is fairly protected by the unexpected surge in the underlying asset. Moreover, since the underlying asset is more valuable, default rates for the loans goes down as people are more protective of the collateral they have placed.
The same scenario for gold is happening right now and is the reason for gold backed loan providers like MUTHOOT to hit ATHs as gold is leading the economy right now. Also, these in these scenarios, it also enables companies to offer additional loan on same gold for those who are interested Instead of keeping the loan amount same most of the gold loan companies.
Based on above, we can see that as RBI changes LTV for certain assets, we are in a position to identify potential institutions that could get a good Quarterly result and try to enter it early. Conclusion
The above rates contain the ways in the Central Bank manages the monetary policy, growth and inflation in the country.
Its impact on Stock market is often seen when these rates are changed, they act as triggers for the intraday positions on that day. But overall, the outlook is always maintained on how the RBI sees the country is doing, and knee jerk reactions are limited to intraday positions. The long term stance is always well within the limits of the outlook the big players in the market are expecting.
The important thing to keep in mind is that the problems facing the economy needn’t be uni-dimensional. Problems with inflation, growth, liquidity, currency depreciation all can come together, for which the RBI will have to play a balancing role with all it powers to change these rates and the forex reserve. So the effect on the market needs to be given more thought than simply extrapolated as ‘rates go low, markets go up’.
But understanding these individual effects of these rates allows you to start putting together the puzzle of how and where the market and the economy could go.
This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got. I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are) submitted by
Three years ago a festschrift
for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here
(they get the number wrong) and more recently here
), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs
& returns 29,100 results on Google
. There's also plenty of references
to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019)
. The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here
. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product
(indeed, by definition
, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019)
critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019)
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019)
explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019)
, and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983)
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)
's 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019)
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019)
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods. Sunderland (2013)
argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019)
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946. Dewey (1978)
points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015)
, a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016)
and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016)
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1
). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people,
much like Japan.
The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980)
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983)
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986)
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985)
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground. 1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally. or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri
. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India
. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India.
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them.
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt.
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar.
The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj.
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India.
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method.
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India.
The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947.
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960.
Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan.
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947).
Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940.
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics.
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth.
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle.
The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis.
Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India.
Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background.
Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment.
The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan
. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India.
Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800.
War in History
https://popify.org/ submitted by
conversion rate formula
conversion rate optimization
conversion rate euro dollar
conversion rate definition
conversion rate calculator
conversion rate euro to pound
conversion rate euro usd
conversion rate euro to inr
conversion rate usd eur
conversion rate usd to cad
conversion rate adalah
conversion rate aed to inr
conversion rate aud to usd
conversion rate abbreviation
conversion rate aud to inr
conversion rate average
conversion rate advertising
conversion rate amazon
conversion rate aud to nzd
conversion rate australian dollars to pounds
conversion rate kpi
conversion rate kg to lb
conversion rate km to miles
conversion rate kilograms to pounds
conversion rate kilometers to miles
conversion rate krw to usd
conversion rate korean won to usd
conversion rate kenyan shillings to dollars
conversion rate kg to pounds
conversion rate kwd to inr
conversion rate history
conversion rate hkd to usd
conversion rate how to calculate
conversion rate hubspot
conversion rate hong kong dollar to usd
conversion rate hkd to sgd
conversion rate hypothesis test
conversion rate home loan
conversion rate hkd to myr
conversion rate hesaplama
conversion rate experts
conversion rate ecommerce
conversion rate eur to usd
conversion rate etsy
conversion rate euro to aud
conversion rate equation
conversion rate jpy to usd
conversion rate japanese yen to usd
conversion rate jamaican dollars to us dollars
conversion rate jamaican to us
conversion rate jpy to inr
conversion rate jmd to usd
conversion rate jpy to sgd
conversion rate jod to usd
conversion rate jpy to myr
conversion rate jelentése
conversion rate facebook ads
conversion rate formula excel
conversion rate from pounds to dollars
conversion rate from usd to inr
conversion rate from euros to dollars
conversion rate formula facebook
conversion rate formula in retail
conversion rate from usd to cad
conversion rate for email marketing
conversion rate dollar euro
conversion rate dollars to pounds
conversion rate dollar to peso
conversion rate dollar to rupee
conversion rate deutsch
conversion rate dollar to yen
conversion rate definition google analytics
conversion rate dollar to shekel
conversion rate dollar to naira
conversion rate cad to usd
conversion rate currency
conversion rate calculator marketing
conversion rate cad to inr
conversion rate calculation formula
conversion rate celsius to fahrenheit
conversion rate chart
conversion rate cm to inches
conversion rate can be described as
conversion rate of dollar to naira
conversion rate of usd to inr
conversion rate optimization strategies
conversion rate optimization agency
conversion rate optimization tools
conversion rate optimization services
conversion rate optimization best practices
conversion rate of pounds to naira
conversion rate of pounds to dollars
conversion rate nzd to usd
conversion rate nedir
conversion rate nzd to aud
conversion rate naira to dollar
conversion rate nzd to inr
conversion rate nok to usd
conversion rate nzd to gbp
conversion rate new zealand
conversion rate nasıl hesaplanır
conversion rate nz to us
conversion rate meaning
conversion rate money
conversion rate marketing formula
conversion rate metric
conversion rate meaning in hindi
conversion rate miles to km
conversion rate myr to usd
conversion rate meters to feet
conversion rate meaning in business
conversion rate mm to inches
conversion rate inr to usd
conversion rate in digital marketing
conversion rate icon
conversion rate in google analytics
conversion rate instagram
conversion rate is a measure of the
conversion rate in sales
conversion rate in retail
conversion rate in ecommerce
conversion rate instagram ads
conversion rate google analytics
conversion rate gbp to usd
conversion rate google ads
conversion rate gbp to inr
conversion rate gbp to euro
conversion rate gbp to aud
conversion rate graph
conversion rate gbp to eur
conversion rate grams to ounces
conversion rate google analytics definition
conversion rate benchmarks
conversion rate berechnen
conversion rate business
conversion rate british pound to us dollar
conversion rate by date
conversion rate bells to dollars
conversion rate brazilian real to us dollar
conversion rate by channel
conversion rate business definition
conversion rate british pounds to dollars
conversion rate là gì
conversion rate lbs to kg
conversion rate landing page
conversion rate length
conversion rate linkedin
conversion rate linkedin ads
conversion rate lbs to dollars
conversion rate lead generation
conversion rate liters to gallons
conversion rate live
conversion rate retail
conversion rate rmb to usd
conversion rate rupee to dollar
conversion rate ranking facebook
conversion rate rand to dollar
conversion rate rand to pound
conversion rate rm to usd
conversion rate rupee to pound
conversion rate ranking below average
conversion rate real estate
conversion rate vs ctr
conversion rate vs exchange rate
conversion rate vnd to usd
conversion rate vs win rate
conversion rate vs bounce rate
conversion rate vietnam
conversion rate vietnamese dong to us dollar
conversion rate vs retention rate
conversion rate vs close rate
conversion rate variance gain
conversion rate pound to euro
conversion rate pounds to dollars
conversion rate pesos to dollars
conversion rate paypal
conversion rate pound to inr
conversion rate pounds to aud
conversion rate php to usd
conversion rate percentage
conversion rate pound to rupees
conversion rate pound to us dollar
conversion rate website
conversion rate wiki
conversion rate won to usd
conversion rate weight
conversion rate web analytics
conversion rate western union
conversion rate website average
conversion rate what is
conversion rate won to dollar
conversion rate website definition
conversion rate sales
conversion rate social media
conversion rate shopify
conversion rate sgd to usd
conversion rate sterling to euro
conversion rate sgd to myr
conversion rate sgd to inr
conversion rate synonym
conversion rate social media marketing
conversion rate seo
conversion rate usd to inr
conversion rate usd to aud
conversion rate usd to sgd
conversion rate usd to gbp
conversion rate usd to php
conversion rate usd to nzd
conversion rate usd to myr
conversion rate usd
conversion rate yen to usd
conversion rate yen to dollar
conversion rate youtube
conversion rate yuan to usd
conversion rate youtube ads
conversion rate yen to peso
conversion rate yen to sgd
conversion rate yen to aud
conversion rate youtube video
conversion rate yen
conversion rate today
conversion rate to usd
conversion rate table
conversion rate to euro
conversion rate to hinduism
conversion rate tableau
conversion rate temperature
conversion rate to sales
conversion rate to pounds
conversion rate twitter
bali conversion rate
bank of america conversion rate
best conversion rate
bsp conversion rate
best euro conversion rate
bank conversion rate
best penalty conversion rate
barclays conversion rate
bmo conversion rate
best free kick conversion rate
anz conversion rate
australian conversion rate
aud conversion rate
aud to usd conversion rate
australia conversion rate
aed to usd conversion rate
average conversion rate
american conversion rate
amex conversion rate
australian dollar conversion rate
currency conversion rate
cash conversion rate
canada conversion rate
canadian conversion rate
currency conversion rate calculator
current conversion rate
calculate conversion rate
cad to usd conversion rate
citibank conversion rate
commbank conversion rate
conversion rate qar to usd
conversion rate quizlet
conversion rate que es
conversion rate qar to inr
conversion rate qatari riyal to philippine peso
conversion rate quetzales to dollars
conversion rate qatari riyal to us dollar
conversion rate questions
conversion rate quotes
conversion rate qatar riyal to philippine peso
dollar conversion rate
dollar to rupee conversion rate
dollar to euro conversion rate
dollar to pound conversion rate
dollar conversion rate today
dbs conversion rate
dollar to rupee conversion rate today
dubai conversion rate
dollar to peso conversion rate
dollar to sterling conversion rate
how to calculate conversion rate
hsbc conversion rate
how to increase conversion rate
hdfc conversion rate
hong kong conversion rate
how to increase conversion rate in retail
how to improve conversion rate
how to increase conversion rate in sales
highest penalty conversion rate
hkd to usd conversion rate
gbp to usd conversion rate
gold conversion rate
gbp conversion rate
google conversion rate calculator
good conversion rate
gbp to euro conversion rate
gbp to eur conversion rate
google conversion rate
goal conversion rate
google ads conversion rate
euro conversion rate
euro to dollar conversion rate
euro to pound conversion rate
euro to usd conversion rate
euro to gbp conversion rate
euro to inr conversion rate today
ecommerce conversion rate
euro conversion rate today
eur to usd conversion rate
euro to sterling conversion rate
fx conversion rate
free kick conversion rate
fiji conversion rate
facebook conversion rate
fbar conversion rate 2018
facebook ads conversion rate
free conversion rate calculator
forex conversion rate
feed conversion rate
fbar conversion rate 2019
conversion rate zar to usd
conversion rate zar to inr
conversion rate zloty to euro
conversion rate zimbabwe dollars to us dollars
conversion rate zar to aud
conversion rate zloty to dollar
conversion rate zloty to pound
conversion rate zar to gbp
conversion rate zar to eur
conversion rate zar to us dollar
conversion rate xe
conversion rate xbox ultimate
conversion rate xpf to usd
conversion rate xcd to usd
conversion rate xpf to dollars
conversion rate xof to usd
conversion rate xaf to usd
conversion rate xpf to aud
conversion x rate
exchange rate conversion xe
sbi conversion rate
sales conversion rate
singapore conversion rate
scotiabank conversion rate
sterling conversion rate
sar to usd conversion rate
sterling to euro conversion rate
sales conversion rate by industry
sales conversion rate statistics
sek to usd conversion rate
mastercard conversion rate
money conversion rate
mexico conversion rate
monzo conversion rate
maybank conversion rate
mexican conversion rate
moneygram conversion rate
mas conversion rate
myr to usd conversion rate
mastercard currency conversion rate
rbi conversion rate
rbc conversion rate
religion conversion rate in india
rupee conversion rate
revolut conversion rate
rand conversion rate
robux conversion rate
rupee to dollar conversion rate
rand to pula conversion rate
religion conversion rate
xe conversion rate
xoom conversion rate
xbox game pass ultimate conversion rate
xpf to usd conversion rate
xoom conversion rate india
xbox live to ultimate conversion rate
xoom conversion rate today
xe currency conversion rate
xcd to usd conversion rate
xbox game pass conversion rate
inr to usd conversion rate
iceland conversion rate
india conversion rate
ing conversion rate
irs conversion rate
increase conversion rate
indian conversion rate
inr to aed conversion rate
instagram conversion rate
inr to usd conversion rate today
japan conversion rate
jpy to usd conversion rate
japanese conversion rate
jpy to inr conversion rate
jamaican conversion rate
jamaica conversion rate
japanese yen conversion rate
john lewis conversion rate
jpy conversion rate
jpy to usd conversion rate today
korean conversion rate
kg to lbs conversion rate
krw to usd conversion rate
km to miles conversion rate
kenya conversion rate
kwd to usd conversion rate
kuna conversion rate
kilo to stone conversion rate
korea conversion rate
kpi conversion rate
visa conversion rate
vietnam conversion rate
venezuela conversion rate
visa currency conversion rate
visa card conversion rate
vietnamese conversion rate
visa class b conversion rate
visa international conversion rate
visa euro conversion rate
vanuatu conversion rate
qar to usd conversion rate
qnb conversion rate
qatar conversion rate
quote conversion rate
qantas points conversion rate
query to get conversion rate in oracle apps
quote to sale conversion rate
quote to order conversion rate
qantas frequent flyer conversion rate
qantas frequent flyer points conversion rate
why is paypal's conversion rate different
why is paypal conversion rate lower
why is paypal conversion rate higher
why is conversion rate important
why is my conversion rate so low
why measure conversion rate
why sales conversion rate
why conversion rate optimization is important
why conversion rate is low
why conversion rate optimization
us conversion rate
usd to gbp conversion rate
usd conversion rate
usd to inr conversion rate
us dollar conversion rate
usd to euro conversion rate
us to canada conversion rate
usd to cad conversion rate
usd to inr conversion rate today
us to cad conversion rate
what is conversion rate
what is conversion rate optimization
what is the conversion rate from pounds to dollars
what is conversion rate in sales
what is the euro conversion rate
what is conversion rate in marketing
what is the euro to dollar conversion rate
what is the us conversion rate
what is ecommerce conversion rate
what is the conversion rate from usd to cad
nab conversion rate
new zealand conversion rate
nz conversion rate
natwest conversion rate
nfl 2 point conversion rate 2019
nfl 2 point conversion rate
nzd to gbp conversion rate
nationwide conversion rate
norway conversion rate
naira conversion rate
how to work out conversion rate
how to calculate currency conversion rate
how to increase conversion rate ecommerce
how to find conversion rate
how to increase conversion rate shopify
oanda conversion rate
ocbc conversion rate
oanda currency conversion rate
online store conversion rate
omr to usd conversion rate
online conversion rate
outpatient to inpatient conversion rate
onside kick conversion rate
osrs to rs3 gold conversion rate
opportunity conversion rate formula
lead conversion rate
lbs to kg conversion rate
lb to dollar conversion rate
live conversion rate
lloyds conversion rate
lloyds bank conversion rate
london conversion rate
land conversion rate in odisha
landing page conversion rate
lead to opportunity conversion rate
yen conversion rate
yen to dollar conversion rate
yen to pound conversion rate
yen to usd conversion rate
yahoo conversion rate calculator
yen to gbp conversion rate
yelp conversion rate
youtrip conversion rate
yen to us dollar conversion rate
yen to aud conversion rate
paypal conversion rate
pound to dollar conversion rate
peso conversion rate
pound to euro conversion rate
post office conversion rate
peso to dollar conversion rate
pound conversion rate
paypal currency conversion rate
philippine conversion rate
paypal conversion rate calculator
zar to usd conversion rate
zar to gbp conversion rate
zimbabwe conversion rate
zar conversion rate
zloty conversion rate
zar to inr conversion rate
zar to euro conversion rate
zar to nzd conversion rate
zillow lead conversion rate
western union conversion rate
is paypal conversion rate good
is feed conversion rate
is high conversion rate
is the conversion rate
is conversion rate a kpi
is conversion rate good
who has the best penalty conversion rate
can us conversion rate
can you increase conversion rate
can conversion rate be more than 100
can conversion rate
can conversion rate be over 100
which of the following can the conversion rate reveal
how can i improve my conversion rate
how can i increase my conversion rate
how can you calculate conversion rate
top penalty conversion rate
top free kick conversion rate
top strikers conversion rate
top of funnel conversion rate
top 10 conversion rate
top strategies for conversion rate optimization
top conversion rate optimization companies
top conversion rate websites
top conversion rate optimization experts
top conversion rates traffic
best penalty conversion rate premier league
best dollar conversion rate
best free kick conversion rate all time
best goal conversion rate in europe
best penalty conversion rate ever
best us conversion rate
best shot conversion rate premier league
td conversion rate
td bank conversion rate
transferwise conversion rate
thailand conversion rate
todays conversion rate
thca to thc conversion rate
$ to £ conversion rate
today conversion rate usd to inr
today dollar conversion rate
$ to euro conversion rate
conversion rate will be
worst 50 to 100 conversion rate
worst penalty conversion rate
worst currency conversion rate
worst penalty conversion rate premier league
worst century conversion rate
worst conversion rate
worst conversion rate in premier league
worst conversion rate in test cricket
worst conversion rate to usd
should i use paypal conversion rate
should you use paypal conversion rate
what should my conversion rate be
what should my website conversion rate be
to maximize conversion rate the sales funnel should be
what conversion rate did i get
do you accept conversion rate
do you calculate conversion rate
do conversion rate
how do you calculate a conversion rate hubspot
how do you work out conversion rate
how do conversion rates work
how to do a conversion rate in excel
how do you calculate sales conversion rate
how do i calculate conversion rate
how do i check my paypal conversion rate
does paypal conversion rate change
does paypal increase conversion rate
does video increase conversion rate
does conversion rate affect seo
does conversion rate decrease as traffic increases
does conversion rate help seo
what does conversion rate mean
what does a website’s conversion rate reflect
what does conversion rate mean in sales
what does conversion rate measure
was ist conversion rate
was ist eine gute conversion rate
was ist eine conversion rate
how was the conversion rate
why would conversion rate drop
how would you express the rate of conversion of the zinc
could not determine valid conversion rate
no exchange rate conversion factors could be
Thanks for the overwhelming response to my question about best forex card, and I finally settled for Redditor's favourite (but unknown to me) GO NiYO card. submitted by
I am out for suggestions on the best credit card keeping in view of the rewards program. The card should be free (no registration charge/ annual fee etc.) I am currently using HDFC Regalia First (their basic variety), but rewards are bare minimum (slow accrual rate and 1 point is just 0.3 rupees).
Like GO NiYo, any unknown gem? I would have gone with "Chase Sapphire" had it been available in India.
Find the lowest forex rates in India for foreign currency exchange, buying forex travel card and money transfer abroad. Buy or sell foreign currency or send money abroad easily via RBI authorized money changers. Compare instant quotes & book your forex online! * Zero margin rates/ interbank rates are available only on forex cards on specific currencies, in select cities for orders amounting to Rs. 1 lakh or more BookMyForex Pvt Ltd Unit 662 - 664, JMD Megapolis Sohna Road, Sector - 48 Gurgaon 122018, Haryana India This currency rates table lets you compare an amount in Indian Rupee to all other currencies. Forex: Get Live Forex Rates on The Economic Times. Find latest Forex News and Updates, Live Currency Rates, Currency Convertor and more. Live Currency Rates, Indian Rupee, Euro, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Currency Analysis, Currency Charts
Best Forex broker for Indian's True ECN regulate Broker Hindi-Urdu Video Registration Link Best Forex Broker For India http://bit.ly/2JX45D2 Forex Broker... latest exchange rates or currency rates in Indian rupees :AED, QAR, OMR, SAR, KWD, BHD, EUR, USD currency rates today in inr today currency rates & news, tod... #3 Forex Trading legal or illegal in india Forex Trading Tamil Technical Analysis Fxchandru Website : https://fxchandru.in/ 👉7904483540👈 Telegram : htt... Hello Friends , Register Forex Broker - https://bit.ly/2NFSXfu Join Our Telegram Channel - https://t.me/cryptosignalsMG Join Binance From - www.binance.com/e... Currency rates today